End notes & comments

Part I – History

  1. Financial Times (2015): Bank fines: get the data, Financial Times, 22 May 2015. Available from: http://blogs.ft.com/ftdata/2015/05/22/bank-fines-data/?
  2. Center for Strategic and International Studies (2014): The Cost of Corruption:
    Strategies for Ending a Tax on Private-sector-led Growth. Available from:

Part II – Change

  1. 1 As of May 2015
  2. Fortune Datastore (2014)
  3. Wages of Global Compact signatories on the Fortune Global 500 list of year
    2014 have been estimated based on the number of employees of these companies and an US annual mean wage of USD 47 230 (United States Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics).
  4. Statista (2015)
  5. The Global Private Sector Workforce has been estimated based on the Global Employed Workforce and the average share of public employment in total employment (Survey on public sector employment statistics, Bureau of Statistics, ILO, October 1998). The Global Employed Workforce is based on World Development indicators ‘Labor Force, total’ and ‘Labor force  participation rate, total’ (World Bank - World Development Indicators, 2015-04-14).
  6. World Bank 2015: World Development Indicators (Listed domestic companies,
    total). Available from: http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/CM.MKT.LDOM.NO
  7. Many of these listed companies are, traded on stock exchanges that are Partner Exchanges to the Sustainable Stock Exchanges initiative of the Global Compact.
  8. 2015 Global Compact Implementation survey
  9. 2015 Global Compact Implementation survey
  10. WEF (2015)
  11. DNV GL (2014)
  12. The data does not reflect that some of the larger companies had negative  savings over time due to company growth or improved methods of  measurement.
    Efficiency measures were not significant enough or largely comparable, but in terms of water saved relative to company size we can assume the impact
    described is a conservative estimate. Report content also varies significantly,
    and some reports were excluded as they do not provide comparable data.
  13. Ceres (2014)
  14. Communication on Progress (COP): Companies participating in the Global
    Compact commit to issue an annual Communication on Progress, a public
    disclosure to stakeholders (e.g., investors, consumers, civil society, governments, etc.) on progress made in implementing the ten principles of the
    UN Global Compact, and in supporting broader UN development goals. Violations of the COP policy (e.g., failure to issue a COP) will change a participant’sstatus to non-communicating and can eventually lead to the expulsion of the participant.
  15. The Global Reporting Initiative registers sustainability reports that are publishedglobally. Available from: http://database.globalreporting.org
  16. Shift (2014)
  17. Global Carbon Atlas (2015). Available from: http://www.globalcarbonatlas.
  18. Global Greenhouse Gas Reference Network (2015): Trends in Atmospheric
    Carbon Dioxide. Available from: http://www.esrl.noaa.gov/gmd/ccgg/trends/
  19. Deloitte and UN Global Compact (2014): Caring for Climate progress report 2014. Available from: https://www.unglobalcompact.org/docs/issues_doc/Environment/climate/C4C-ProgReport2014.pdf
  20. Deloitte and UN Global Compact (2014): Caring for Climate progress report 2014. Available from: https://www.unglobalcompact.org/docs/issues_doc/Environment/climate/C4C-ProgReport2014.pdf
  21. GLOBE International and the Grantham Research Institute on Climate Change
    and the Environment (2015)
  22. Deloitte and UN Global Compact (2014)
  23. Deloitte and UN Global Compact (2014)
  24. Accenture (2013)
  25. MIT Sloan School Management Review and The Boston Consulting Group
  26. The G8 is now G7
  27. Relander, B. (2015). Investing in Green Technology - The Future Is Now,
    Investopedia. Available from: http:// www.investopedia.com/articles/invest
  28. Eurosif (2014): European SRI Study 2014. Available from: http://www.eurosif.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/09/Eurosif-SRI-Study-20142.pdf
  29. Throughout this report responsible investing and sustainable investing are used interchangeably and are defined as an approach to investment that explicitly acknowledges the relevance to the investor of environmental, social and governance (ESG) factors, and the longterm health and stability of the market as a whole. It recognises that the generation of long-term sustainable returns is
    dependent on stable, well-functioning and well governed social, environmental
    and economic systems.’ (PRI)
  30. The PRI Clearinghouse is a unique global platform for collaborative  engagement initiatives. It provides PRI signatories with a private forum to pool resources, share information, enhance influence and engage with companies, stakeholders, policymakers and other actors in the investment value chain on environmental, social and corporate governance issues across different sectors and regions.
  31. 2015 UN-business partnership survey, conducted by the UN Global Compact.
  32. DNV GL (2014)
  33. United Nations (1999): Secretary-General Proposes Global Compact on Human Rights, Labour, Environment, in Address to World Economic Forum
    in Davos. Press Release SG/SM/6881. Available from: http://www.un.org/press/
  34. Kell, G. (2000): Remarks on the Global Compact - Corporate Citizenship: Defining the New Responsibilities, Remarks by Georg Kell 24 October 2000 at Chatahm House, London. Available from: https://www.unglobalcompact.org/NewsAndEvents/speeches_and_statements/chatam_house_london.html
  35. PwC (2014)
  36. MIT Sloan School Management Review and The Boston Consulting Group (2015)
  37. MIT Sloan Management Review (2013)
  38. Accenture (2013)
  39. PwC (2014)
  40. KPMG (2013)
  41. UN Global Compact Office (May, 2015)
  42. UN Global Compact Office (May, 2015)
  43. UN Global Compact Office (May, 2015)
  44. UN Global Compact Office (May, 2015)
  45. Factiva, Inc. (2015)
  46. 2015 Global Compact Implementation survey
  47. EY (2013)
  48. UN Women and UN Global Compact (2015). Gender Equality and Women’s
    Empowerment Reporting Trends for UN Global Compact Companies That Signed the WEPs. Available from: http://weprinciples.unglobalcompact.org/files/attachments/Gender_Equality_and_Women’s_Empowerment_Reporting_Trends.pdf
  49. The World Bank (2013)
  50. Strategy& and PwC (2012)
  51. Catalyst (2015)
  52. ILO (2015)
  53. OECD (2012)
  54. DNV GL (2014)
  55. UN Global Compact (2013): Local Network Report 2013. Available from: https://www.unglobalcompact.org/docs/publications/LN_Report_2013.pdf
  56. Based on interview with the first chairman of the Indian local network Dr. Balyan, and information from Shabnam Siddiqui, Project Director Global Compact Network India
  57. South African Government (2013): Speech by Minister Collins Chabane: Roundtable of UN Global Compact Network in South Africa, Topic: Anti-
    Corruption Collective Action and Integrity in Business. Available from:
  58. By impact we mean ‘significant or lasting changes, brought about by a given action or series of actions’ (Roche 1999)
  59. Together with UNEP FI in 2007
  60. In 2009

Part III – Pathways

  1. Sukhdev, P. (2014): Valuing Natural Capital: What Next and Why? Huffington Post, http://www.huffingtonpost.com/pavan-sukhdev/valuing-natural-capital-w_b_5193610.html
  2. DNV GL (2014)